Ciclo Integral del Agua: Proyecto

Ciclo Integral del Agua: Artículo

  • Optimization of the acid stage of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process to treat urban wastewater sludge

    The efficiency of a two-stage mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion process was studied in comparison with a conventional process to treat urban sludge in relation to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the acid stage. This comparison, performed to optimize methane production in relation to the acid stage, was carried out in a pilot plant operating a two-stage process in parallel with conventional anaerobic digestion. The conditions of the conventional process were 22 days of HRT at 33.6°C; while the methanogenic stage was not changed (HRT 8.5 days at 33.5°C), the HRT of the acid stage ranged from 1.6±0.3  days to 3.2±0.6  days under a constant temperature of approximately 21.5°C. The results showed that the total anaerobic digestion process HRT can be reduced by at least 10.8 days using the two-stage technology without reducing the quality of the sludge effluent, operating at a HRT minimum of 1.6 days. Moreover, in the two-stage process, the optimum acid stage HRT to maximize methane production is 2.18 days.

      2018
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    • Revista: Environmental Engineering
    • Volumen - Páginas: 143(9)
    • Referencia: DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001237.
    • Editorial: American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater

    Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence of operational parameters, such as surface overflow rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature, on the removal efficiency of suspended solids and organic matter by the measurement of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the primary sedimentation process. The research was carried out in a semi-technical primary settling tank which was fed with real wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant. The physical process was strictly controlled and without the intervention of chemical additives. Three cycles of operation were tested in relation to the surface overflow rate, in order to check their influence on the different final concentrations. The results obtained show that the elimination efficiency can be increased by 11% for SS and 9% for chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, for variations in the surface overflow rate of around ±0.6 m3/m2·h and variations in hydraulic retention time of around ±2 h. The results also show that current design criteria are quite conservative. An empirical mathematical model was developed in this paper relating SS removal efficiency to q, influent SS concentration, and sewage temperature.

      2017
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    • Autor/es: Jover-Smet, M., Martín-Pascual, J., & Trapote, A.
    • Revista: Water
    • Volumen - Páginas: 9(6):448
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060448
    • Editorial: MDPI
  • Impact of ciprofloxacin, carbamazepine and ibuprofen on a membrane bioreactor system: Kinetic study and biodegradation capacity

    BACKGROUND This study analyzed the effects of carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen on the behavior of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system treating urban wastewater that was doped continuously with three different concentrations of this mix of pharmaceuticals under a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. RESULTS The degradation capacity of these chemicals and the heterotrophic kinetics regarding the organic matter removal were evaluated in the control and doping cycles. CONCLUSIONS Although the MLSS decreased drastically, these differences were not observed in the organic matter removal as the increase of cell growth rate cancelled out the increase in cell decay rate due to the chemical stress caused by the addition of pharmaceuticals, as shown by the increased organic matter degradation rate from 86.27 mgO2 L−1 h−1 in the control cycle to values within the limits 183.97 mgO2 L−1 h−1 and 192.88 mgO2 L−1 h−1 in doping cycles. The degradation rates were 0.0154, 0.0152 and 0.0160 μgS/((μgSin/L)*h*mgMLSS) for carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen, respectively, involving removal yields higher than 71.9, 88.7 and 94.7% for carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen, respectively, at the three different concentrations tested. Therefore, MBR technology can be used as a reliable process to significantly reduce this mix of pharmaceuticals without reducing its organic matter removal capacity.

      2017
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    • Revista: Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
    • Volumen - Páginas: 92(12): 2944-2951
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5316
    • Editorial: Wiley
  • Moving bed biofilm reactor to treat wastewater

    This review carries out a comparative study of advanced technologies to design, upgrade and rehabilitate wastewater treatment plants. The study analyzed the relevant researches in the last years about the moving bed biofilm reactor process with only attached biomass and with hybrid biomass, which combined attached and suspended growth; both could be coupled with a secondary settling tank or microfiltration/ultrafiltration membrane as a separation system. The physical process of membrane separation improved the organic matter and NH4 +-N removal efficiencies compared with the settling tank. In particular, the pure moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor showed average chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand on the fifth day and total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 88.32, 90.84 and 60.17%, respectively, and the hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor had mean chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand on the fifth day and total nitrogen reduction percentages of 91.18, 97.34 and 68.71%, respectively. Moreover, the hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor showed the best efficiency regarding organic matter removal for low hydraulic retention times, so this system would enable the rehabilitation of activated sludge plants and membrane bioreactors that did not comply with legislation regarding organic matter removal. As the pure moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor performed better than the hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor concerning the total nitrogen removal under low hydraulic retention times, this system could be used to adapt wastewater treatment plants whose effluent was flowed into sensitive zones where total nitrogen concentration was restricted. This technology has been reliably used to upgrade overloaded existing conventional activated sludge plants, to treat wastewater coming from textile, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper mill or hospital effluents, to treat wastewater containing recalcitrant compounds efficiently, and to treat wastewater with high salinity and/or low and high temperatures.

      2016
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    • Autor/es: Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Martín-Pascual, J., & Poyatos, J. M.
    • Revista: Environmental Science and Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: 14 (4): 881–910
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-016-1169-y
    • Editorial: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Membrane fouling of a hybrid moving bed membrane bioreactor plant to treat real urban wastewater

    The influence of operative variables in the performance of an ultrafiltration membrane in a hybrid moving bed membrane bioreactor treating real urban wastewater was studied in relation to the fouling rate and the recovery of permeability with a multivariable statistical analysis. Twenty-one cycles of operation were studied in relation to the filling ratio, flux, temperature, biomass concentration in a pilot-scale experimental plant. The pilot plant consisted of three units of ZW-10 submerged membrane and 20, 35 and 50% of K1 of Anoxkaldnes were used as carrier. The statistical analysis has shown that the most influential variables in the performance of the membrane were temperature and flux. Transmembrane pressure ranged from 22 kPa to 68 kPa, increasing with the MLSS, BFSS and flux and decreasing with temperature. The presence of biofilm negatively affected the performance of the membrane in relation to the fouling rate; this varied between 0.26 and 1.22 kPa/day, and was found to increase when viscosity and BFSS increased and temperature decreased.

      2016
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Muñio, M. M., Reboleiro-Rivas, P., Poyatos, J. M., López González J.
    • Revista: Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification
    • Volumen - Páginas: 104 (112-119)
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2016.02.014
    • Editorial: Elsevier
  • Treatment of urban wastewater with pure moving bed membrane bioreactor technology at different filling ratios, hydraulic retention times and temperatures

    Studies investigating the functioning and possible utility of new wastewater treatment technologies are urgently needed if the requirements of European Directive 91/271/EEC are to be met. Here, moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) technology was studied in a pilot plant of 445 L volume with ultrafiltration membrane (ZW-10) under 10 h and 24 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and three filling ratios (20 %, 35 % and 50 %) at temperatures between 2.5 °C and 17.3 °C. Biofilm density ranged between 1510 ± 127 and 3775 ± 247 mg/L carrier. Temperature was the operative variable with most influence in the behaviour of biomass and in organic matter and nitrogen oxidation whereas the filling ratio affected mainly biofilm density. Removal of organic matter and nitrogen increased with the amount of biofilm in the carrier. The amount of biofilm attached under the highest filling ratio was reduced as a consequence of increased collision between carriers, indicating that an optimum rate of filling ratio in this process can be determined. The organic matter removal rate reached 86.4 % and 91.5 % in terms of COD and BOD5, respectively, and no less than 13.9 % and 13.7 % ammonia and total nitrogen content, respectively, was removed by the system.

      2015
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Poyatos, J. M.
    • Revista: Annals of Microbiology
    • Volumen - Páginas: 66 (2): 607–613
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-015-1145-7
    • Editorial: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Improvement of a conventional activated sludge process using a hybrid moving bed system

    The regulatory requirements of the European Directive91/271/EEC about urban wastewater treatment make itnecessary to improve the efficiency of many wastewatertreatment plant (WWTP) built in Europe in recent decades.In this research, the benefits of the use of the innovativetechnology of moving bed in a conventional activatedsludge were studied. The research compared the differencesin organic matter removal between both systemsin two equal pilot plants with settler as physical separationsystem: a conventional activated sludge system anda hybrid moving bed which part of the biomass attachedin the carriers. The study showed that at low feed/massloading, moving bed system is able to remove an additional43.33% of BOD5 and an additional 30.08% of COD.So, an existing plant of low feed/mass loading activatedsludge with an effluent of 30±5 mgO2/L of BOD5 could berestored with a hybrid moving bed getting an effluent of17±2 mgO2/L of BOD5.

      2015
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    • Revista: AFINIDAD LXXII
    • Volumen - Páginas: Vol 72, No 572
  • Behaviour of the solids retention time in relation to the operative variables in a hybrid moving bed membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater

    The present research studies the influence of the operative variable of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR–MBR) in the attached biomass, and analyses the effect of the variables on the evolution of solids retention time (SRT) treating real urban wastewater in a pilot-scale experimental plant. This was operated under mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSSs) between 2,414 ± 166 and 4,594 ± 47 mg/L, the temperature ranged between 5.00 ± 1.58 and 27.88 ± 1.52°C and the regimes of 10 and 24 h HRT with 20, 35 and 50% of the filling ratio. The biofilm density changes between 2,618 ± 272 and 6,991 ± 843 mg/L of the carrier show statistically significant differences in relation to the operative variables, so it depends mainly on MLSS and temperature, and is not dependent on the filling ratio under the condition studied. The multivariable analysis showed that the most influential operative variables in the SRT were MLSS and temperature, so two models have been proposed to consider these effects. The SRT can be modelled in relation to the HRT and MLSS throughout the F/M rate with the hyperbola for 20, 35 and 50% of the filling ratio, respectively. In relation to the temperature, the SRT increases linearly with it between approximately 5 and 30°C with linear coefficients that also increase with the filling ratio presenting the values of 0.2825, 0.3438 and 0.4615 d/°C to 20, 35 and 50% of the filling ratio, respectively.

      2015
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Muñio, M. M., & Poyatos, J. M
    • Revista: Desalination and Water Treatment
    • Volumen - Páginas: 57 (42) / 19573-19581
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1102092
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Kinetic modelling of the TOC removal by H2O2/UV, photo-fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis processes on the treatment of wastewater polluted.

    Wastewater from textile manufacturing introduces recalcitrant organic compounds, such as dyes and toxic by-products into the environment, where advanced oxidation processes are used to treat toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants which cannot be removed by traditional methods. H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/H2O2/UV) processes were used, and the effect of the hydraulic retention time on total organic carbon (TOC) removal was evaluated by fitting the analytical data for the three processes to different kinetic models. The high correlation between empirical and modelled data was accomplished with a pseudo-first-order model for the three processes (R 2 = 0.9823 ± 0.017). Mineralisation, decolourisation and disinfection of textile wastewater were investigated with laboratory-scale experiments for each process. Data showed that when 5 g/L H2O2 was used, heterogeneous photocatalysis was the most effective method for the removal of TOC (94.55 %). With respect to colour, all three processes achieved nearly 100 % removal (99.6, 99.3 and 99.9 % at 120 min for the H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and TiO2/H2O2/UV processes, respectively).

      2015
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    • Revista: Environmental Science and Technology (IJEST)
    • Volumen - Páginas: 12 (10)
    • Editorial: SPRINGER
  • Combined treatment of textile wastewater by coagulation–flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Textile wastewater is one of the main environmental pollutants which exist in our society. Textile effluents cause great concern due to the alteration of properties of water bodies such as differences in temperature, organic load, pH, colour and turbidity. Turbidity is one of the most important parameters that should be removed from industrial wastewater because the penetration of ultraviolet (UV) light into the water body can be affected. As a consequence, the main aim of this research was to study the improvements of the efficiency of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with the introduction of a coagulation–flocculation (CF) as a pre-treatment to remove the turbidity of textile wastewater. The experiments were carried out with five industrial coagulants under different concentrations. The turbidity was removed to a level of almost 99% with one of the coagulants (FLOCUSOL-PA/18). The total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removals were studied for each AOP after the CF process in this research. The colour removal was almost 100% for all AOPs. The higher values of TOC and turbidity removals were 94.2 and 6.9%, respectively, with the heterogeneous photocatalysis process. The data show that the use of CF as a pre-treatment of the influent with turbidity improves the efficiency of the AOP.

      2015
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    • Autor/es: López-López, C., Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Martínez-Toledo, M. V., Muñío, M. M., & Poyatos, J. M.
    • Revista: Desalination and Water Treatment Desalination
    • Volumen - Páginas: 57 (30)/13987-13994
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1063013
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Effect of the Filling Ratio, MLSS, Hydraulic Retention Time, and Temperature on the Behavior of the Hybrid Biomass in a Hybrid Moving Bed Membrane Bioreactor Plant to Treat Urban Wastewater.

    Seven cycles of operation in relation to the filling ratio, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), hydraulic retention time (HRT), and temperature were studied in a pilot-scale experimental plant of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR). The aim of the present research was to study the influence of the operative variables on the behavior of a hybrid MBBR-MBR in relation to organic matter removal and nitrification activity through the kinetic constants for the autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass. Biofilm density during the present research depended on the operative variables changing from 4,403±188 to 5,844±268  mg/L of the carrier, increasing with the increase in MLSS and with the decrease in the HRT. The removal rate was higher than 87.40±4.90 and 94.88±2.41% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) BOD5, respectively, increasing process efficiency with the MLSS, HRT, and temperature. Yield for heterotrophic biomass (YH) was between 0.506±0.004 and 0.714±0.076  mg CODformed/mg CODoxidized, and μH,máx of between 0.0245±0.0006 and 0.056±0.012  h−1. The minimum values of efficiencies obtained for ammonia and total nitrogen were 40.40±20.84 and 8.75±5.09%, respectively, presenting yield for autotrophic biomass (YA) between 0.23±0.01 and 0.51±0.12  mgCODformed/mgNoxidized, and μA,máx varying from 0.0816±0.063 to 0.3083±0.1199  days−1. Considering the results obtained in this research, hybrid MBBR-MBR could be a reliable technology to reduce the energy demands and fouling problems associated with conventional MBR technology.

      2015
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Reboleiro-Rivas, P., López-López, C., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Jover, M., Muñio, M. M., … Poyatos, J. M.
    • Revista: Environmental Engineering
    • Volumen - Páginas: 141 (7)
    • Referencia: DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000939.
    • Editorial: ASCE
  • Kinetic modelling of TOC removal by H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis processes to treat dye-containing wastewater

    Wastewater from textile manufacturing introduces recalcitrant organic compounds, such as dyes and toxic by-products into the environment, where advanced oxidation processes are used to treat toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants which cannot be removed by traditional methods. H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/H2O2/UV) processes were used, and the effect of the hydraulic retention time on total organic carbon (TOC) removal was evaluated by fitting the analytical data for the three processes to different kinetic models. The high correlation between empirical and modelled data was accomplished with a pseudo-first-order model for the three processes (R2 = 0.9823 ± 0.017). Mineralisation, decolourisation and disinfection of textile wastewater were investigated with laboratory-scale experiments for each process. Data showed that when 5 g/L H2O2 was used, heterogeneous photocatalysis was the most effective method for the removal of TOC (94.55 %). With respect to colour, all three processes achieved nearly 100 % removal (99.6, 99.3 and 99.9 % at 120 min for the H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and TiO2/H2O2/UV processes, respectively).

      2015
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    • Autor/es: López López C., Martín Pascual J., Martínez Toledo M.V., Muñio M.M., Hontoria E., Poyatos J.M.
    • Revista: Environmental Science and Technology (IJEST)
    • Volumen - Páginas: 12 (10)
    • Referencia: DOI 10.1007/s13762-015-0755-8
    • Editorial: Islamic Azad University
  • Toxic effect of H2O2 in H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/H2O2/UV) systems to treat textile wastewater

    The application of H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/H2O2/UV) processes for the treatment of a highly polluted coloured wastewater was analysed. The experiments were carried out with different H2O2 concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 g/L). The toxic properties of different H2O2 concentrations in textile wastewater were tested by the use of a Microtox bioassay with Vibrio fischeri. The efficiency of the process was checked by assessing the physicochemical parameters, total organic carbon (TOC) and colour. The use of TiO2 as a catalyst with UV photolysis was the most effective method to remove toxins, organic material and colour using the five concentrations of H2O2 tested. By using 5 g/L of H2O2, 94% TOC removal was achieved. In relation to colour removal, this was greater than 99% with 5 g/L of H2O2 in all three processes. The use of a catalyst allowed us to reduce the hydraulic retention time of the process to 30 min with Fe2+ and 45 min with TiO2. Controlling the amount of H2O2 used as the oxidant in an advanced oxidation process (AOP) is important since it was found to increase the toxicity of the influent with the addition of H2O2 by 4.99 ± 1.48%, 27.4 ± 3.24%, 39.16 ± 5.64%, 53.40 ± 4.15% and 59.39 ± 4.67% with 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 g/L H2O2, respectively. Therefore, under the studied conditions, an H2O2 concentration greater than 1 g/L is not recommended for an AOP in order to avoid an excess of H2O2 in the effluent.

      2015
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    • Autor/es: López López C., Martín Pascual J., Martínez-Toledo, M., Muñio, M. M., & Poyatos, J. M., Purswani J.
    • Revista: Desalination and Water Treatment
    • Volumen - Páginas: 56 (11) / 3044-3053
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.965224
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Comparative kinetics of hybrid and pure moving bed reactor-membrane bioreactors.

    The moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor (MBBR–MBR) is a novel solution to conventional processes. In this study, a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a hybrid MBBR–MBR and a pure MBBR–MBR were compared. The hybrid MBBR–MBR contained suspended and attached biomass, while the pure MBBR–MBR mainly had attached biomass. The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 9.5 h. The pure MBBR–MBR had the highest efficiency of nitrogen removal with a value of 71.91 ± 16.04%. As a whole, the pure MBBR–MBR showed the best performance from the point of view of the kinetics of the heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass with values of μm,H = 0.018 h−1, μm,A = 0.751 h−1, KM = 2.679 mg O2 L−1 and KNH = 2.191 mg N L−1. The presence of the attached biomass improved the organic matter and nitrogen removal in a pure MBBR–MBR system.

      2014
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Muñio, M. M., … Poyatos, J. M., López González J., Hontoria E.
    • Revista: Ecological Engineering
    • Volumen - Páginas: 70 (227-234)
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.05.017
    • Editorial: Elvesier
  • Influence of hydraulic retention time on heterotrophic biomass in a wastewater moving bed membrane bioreactor treatment plant.

    Wastewater treatment using moving bed membrane bioreactor technology was tested with real urban wastewater at a pilot plant, combining moving bed treatment as a biological process with hybrid biomass (suspended and fixed) and the advantages of a membrane separation system. The evolution of the kinetic constants of the hybrid biomass and organic matter removal were studied in a pilot plant under different operational conditions, by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and temperature, and considering the attached biomass of the carrier and the dispersed biomass of the flocs to reproduce real treatment conditions. The rates of organic matter removal were 97.73 ± 0.81 % of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 93.44 ± 2.13 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 94.41 ± 2.26 % of BOD5 and 87.62 ± 2.47 % of COD using 24.00 ± 0.39 and 10.00 ± 0.07 h of HRT, respectively. The influence of the environmental variables and operational conditions on kinetic constants was studied; it was determined that the most influential variable for the decay coefficient for heterotrophic biomass was HRT (0.34 ± 0.14 and 0.31 ± 0.10 days−1 with 10.00 ± 0.07 and 24.00 ± 0.39 h of HRT, respectively), while for heterotrophic biomass yield, this was temperature (0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.52 ± 0.06 with 10.00 ± 0.07 and 24.00 ± 0.39 h of HRT, respectively). The results show that introducing carriers in an MBR system provides similar results for organic matter removal, but with a lower concentration of MLSS.

      2014
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    • Autor/es: López López C., Martín Pascual J., Hontoria E., Poyatos J.M., González López J., Reboleiro-Rivas, P.
    • Revista: Environmental Science and Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: 11 (5)/1449–1458
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-013-0329-6
    • Editorial: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Effect of the Operative Variables on the Treatment of Wastewater Polluted with Phthalo Blue by H2O2/UV Process

    Large quantities of pollutants such as phthalocyanine which are difficult to degrade by conventional techniques are discharged by the textile industry. Advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be capable of degrading organic compounds and removing colour from the industrial wastewater. In this research, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/UV process under different operative variables has been checked using a photoreactor lab plant to analyse its behaviour in the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand of synthetic textile wastewater with a pigment named phthalo blue 36:3 (C.I. PB15:3). Different pH and H2O2 concentrations were tested to find the better conditions for the UV/H2O2 process suitable for this kind of pollution; this was carried out as an initial study of the operative variables for the scale-up of this technology. The research has shown that with pH 7 and 5 g/L of H2O2, this process can get an organic matter removal higher than 89 % and a colour removal near 70 %. Different kinetic models of organic matter removal have been checked to analyse and predict the influence of time on the process to model similar conditions of pollution. The high correlation between empirical and theoretical data model was pseudofirst order (R 2 = 0.989 ± 0.007).

      2013
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    • Autor/es: López López C., Martín Pascual J., Martínez-Toledo, M., Poyatos, J., Hontoria E., González López J.
    • Revista: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Volumen - Páginas: 224/1725
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1725-8
    • Editorial: Springer Netherlands
  • Effect of water washing on the thermal behavior of rice straw

    Rice straw can be used as a renewable fuel for heat and power generation. It is a viable mean of replacing fossil fuels and preventing pollution caused by open burning, especially in the areas where this residual biomass is generated. Nevertheless, the thermal conversion of rice straw can cause some operating problems such as slag formation, which negatively affects thermal conversion systems. So, the main objective of this research is studying the combustion behavior of rice straw samples collected from various regions by applying thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, the thermal behavior of ashes from rice straw was also analyzed in order to detect their melting points, and ash sintering was detected at different temperatures within the range between 550 and 1000 °C. Since washing rice straw with water could reduce the content of undesirable inorganic compounds related to the ash fusibility, samples of washed rice straw were analyzed under combustion conditions to investigate its differences regarding the thermal behavior of rice straw. The results showed that rice straw washing led to a significant improvement in its thermal behavior, since it reduced the ash contents and sintering formation.

      2013
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    • Autor/es: N. Said, T. Bishara, A. García-Maraver, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: (33) 2250-2256
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.07.019
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Effects of scale-up on a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor - membrane bioreactor for treating urban wastewater.

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor–membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR–MBR) system has been tested in this study at two scales to analyse the scale-up effect. Two municipal wastewater treatment plants were used, one at laboratory scale (hybrid MBBR–MBRL) with a reactor working volume of 24 l and one at pilot scale (hybrid MBBR–MBRP) with a reactor working volume of 358 l. Hybrid MBBR–MBRL and hybrid MBBR–MBRP showed that the hybrid MBBR–MBR systems used in this research were reliable for organic matter removal with COD removal percentages of 90.97±2.55% and 95.56±2.01% for hybrid MBBR–MBRL and hybrid MBBR–MBRP, respectively. In hybrid MBBR–MBRL, the sludge retention time was higher but the biofilm density was lower due to the wall effect, so the two effects cancelled one another out and the COD removal efficiencies were found to be similar. The study identified the most influential variables and their effects on the process. Hybrid MBBR–MBRL and hybrid MBBR–MBRP were influenced by the attached and suspended biomass and temperature, while the influent loading rate only affected hybrid MBBR–MBRP. On the whole, hybrid MBBR–MBRP showed a better performance from the point of view of the kinetics of the heterotrophic biomass, with values of YH=0.6130 mg VSS mg COD−1, μm,H=0.0146 h−1, KS=9.8852 mg O2 L−1, and bH=0.0031 h−1.

      2013
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    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Poyatos, J. M., Hontoria E., González López J.
    • Revista: Chemical Engineering Science
    • Volumen - Páginas: 104 (808-816)
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2013.10.004
    • Editorial: Elsevier
  • Effects of temperature on the permeability and critical flux of the membrane in a moving bed membrane bioreactor

    Effects of temperature on the permeate flux and the permeability of the membrane have been studied in a membrane bioreactor system with a moving bed pilot plant to treat real urban wastewater. In the present study, the permeability of the membrane has been determined under four different suspended solids concentrations and three different degrees of fouling in order to compare the effects of the temperature in different operational conditions. The permeate flux, critical flux and permeability of the membrane at seven different temperatures between 10 and 35°C have been checked. The study showed that the permeate flux increased to 19.2 and 21.2% between 10 and 15°C and between 15 and 20°C respectively, which was higher than the 8.70% obtained between 20 and 25°C, and similarly it increased to 15.6 and 15.6% obtained between 25 and 30°C and between 30 and 35°C, respectively. This trend has been also observed in critical flux values, under the different conditions of suspended solids and fouling degree tested. The data obtained on the permeability of the membrane was fitted to a multiple linear regression using dynamic viscosity and temperature as independent variables.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Muñio, M. M., … Poyatos, J. M., López López C., Hontoria E.
    • Revista: Desalination and Water Treatment
    • Volumen - Páginas: 3439-3448
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.873879
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Influence of filling ratio and carrier type on organic matter removal in a moving bed biofilm reactor with pretreatment of electrocoagulation in wastewater treatment.

    At present, there is great concern about limited water resources and water quality, which require a more advanced technology. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) has been shown to be an efficient technology for removal of organic matter and nutrients in industrial and urban wastewater treatment. However, there are some pollutants which are more difficult to remove by biological processes, so this process can be improved with additional physical and chemical treatments such as electrocoagulation, which appears to be a promising technology in electrochemical treatments. In this research, urban wastewater was treated in an MBBR plant with an electrocoagulation pre-treatment. K1 from AnoxKaldnes® and AQWISE ABC5 from Aqwise were the carriers studied under three different filling ratios (20, 35, and 50%). The experimental pilot plant had four bioreactors with 20 L of operation volume and a common feed tank with 100 L of operation volume. The movement of the carriers was generated by aeration and stirrer systems. Organic matter removal was studied by analysis of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). The maximum organic matter removal in this MBBR system was 65.8% ± 1.4% and 78.4% ± 0.1% for K1 and Aqwise ABC5 carriers, respectively. Moreover, the bacterial diversity of the biofilm was studied by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. 20 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, being the predominant population: β-Proteobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria.

      2012
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: López López C., Martín Pascual J., González Martínez, A., Poyatos, J., Hontoria E., González López J., Calderón, K.
    • Revista: Environmental Science and Health
    • Volumen - Páginas: 47 (1759-1767)
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.689223
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Comparative kinetic study of carrier type in a moving bed system applied to organic matter removal in urban wastewater treatment.

    In recent years, moving bed systems have been shown as an efficient technology in wastewater treatment and particularly in the treatment of urban effluents. This paper presents the results obtained for three different carriers in organic matter removal, analysing the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the filling ratio, as well as the kinetic constants of each carrier used. During the research, differences in the organic matter removal were observed under different conditions studied as a result of physical and geometrical characteristics of each carrier and their hydraulic behaviour. Two of the three carriers studied in this research had similar yields compared to the third carrier that presented lower rates of organic matter removal and lower kinetic constants than the other two. Carriers 1 and 2 obtained removal rates of organic matter in the form of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) above 50% for intermediate and higher filling ratios with HRTs of 15, 10 and 15 h, respectively. The maximum values obtained for carrier 1, 2 and 3 were 56.97%, 58.92% and 46.13%, respectively, under 15 h of HRT and 50% of filling ratio. The kinetic constants obtained by respirometry showed a similar trend to the values obtained from sCOD removal.

      2012
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: López-López, C., Martín-Pascual, J., Leyva-Díaz, J. C., Martínez-Toledo, M. V., Muñio, M. M., & Poyatos, J. M.
    • Revista: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Volumen - Páginas: 223 (4): 1699–1712
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0976-5
    • Editorial: Springer Netherlands

Ciclo Integral del Agua: Libro

Ciclo Integral del Agua: Congresos

Ciclo Integral del Agua: Estudio

Planeamiento: Proyecto

Planeamiento: Artículo

  • Integrating land use planning and water resource management: threshold scenarios a tool to reach sustainability

    The relationship between water and territory has been determined throughout history by the successive construction of water infrastructures. From the first agricultural canals to the present day, water networks have transformed the territory, favouring the creation and development of human settlements, but also resulting in severe impacts. The complexity achieved by these networks and its environmental effects require the establishment of coordinated strategies between Land Use Planning and Water Resource Management, to generate sustainable land use scenarios. In this sense, threshold scenarios are proposed as a convenient tool to limit the uncertainty and determine the impacts of water infrastructures on the territory, helping with decision making and anticipating possible deviations from the plans’ forecasts. In this paper a study on the coast of Granada (Spain) is presented. It shows the importance of including threshold scenarios in an integrated water resource management, as a tool that can be used in the strategic environmental assessment to evaluate territorial integration in water management.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. I. Rodríguez, A. L. Grindlay, M. M. Cuevas and M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Transactions on Ecology and the Environment
    • Volumen - Páginas: (192) 231-242
    • Referencia: DOI 10.2495/ECO150211
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • A planning scenario for the application of Geographical Information Systems in municipal waste collection. A case of Churriana de la Vega (Granada, Spain)

    The optimization of municipal waste collection can reduce management costs and negative impacts on the environment. This article analyzes municipal waste collection in Churriana de la Vega (Granada, Spain), and describes a way to improve waste collection service, based on the information provided by Geographic Information Systems. The results of our study showed that the town had an excessive number of containers for organic matter and rest-waste fraction. This made waste collection less efficient and raised costs related to the purchase of containers, collection time, personnel costs, collection route length, and vehicle maintenance. In the case of recyclable fraction collection, our results showed that waste collection could be improved by increasing the number of containers and optimizing their location. The solutions proposed could improve the percentage of selective waste collection and raise environmental awareness although this action should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns.

      2009
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, E. Molero, A. Grindlay, M.L. Rodríguez, A. Hurtado, F.J. Calvo.
    • Revista: Resources, Conservation and Recycling
    • Volumen - Páginas: (54) 123-133
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.07.001
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Adapting EVIAVE Methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela

    Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause–effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery.

      2009
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, A. Paolini, A. Ramos, M.L. Rodríguez
    • Revista: Journal of Hazardous Materials
    • Volumen - Páginas: (172) 993-1006
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.090
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Environmental diagnosis and planning actions for municipal waste landfills in Estado Lara (Venezuela)

    Municipal waste production in Venezuela and the other Latin American and Caribbean countries continues to increase substantially. Given that uncontrolled management of waste in landfills leads to negative environmental impacts, there is a need to undertake an environmental diagnosis of existing facilities in order to analyse the problems they present and take the necessary measures for reducing adverse effects. The objective of this paper is to study the possibility of applying an environmental diagnosis methodology developed by the University of Granada in order to quantify the environmental impact of urban waste landfills. Seven deposit points located in Estado Lara (Venezuela) were studied. Some modifications in the methodology were introduced to take into account urban waste characteristics and the legal framework in Venezuela. Application of the methodology obtained a series of environmental indexes, making it possible to quantify the impact of the deposit points on the following environmental elements: surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health. The indexes were denominated as follows: Environmental Landfill Interaction Index; Environmental Risk Index; Environmental Value and Probability of Contamination. Analysis of results showed significant operation and design problems in all the landfills. The study also made it possible to compile a catalogue of all the deposit points and draw up a list of priorities for action. In the case of Pavía, a Conditioning Plan is required to improve operation and design. In the remaining six deposit points, each index needs to be studied carefully to determine if a Conditioning Plan is sufficient, or if a Sealing and Closing Plan is required owing to the unsuitable location of the deposit points.

      2008
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Adriana Paolini Méndez, Ángel Ramos Ridao, Montserrat Zamorano Toro
    • Revista: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    • Volumen - Páginas: (12) 752-771
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.025
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Evaluation of a municipal landfill site in Southern Spain with GIS-aided methodology

    Landfill siting should take into account a wide range of territorial and legal factors in order to reduce negative impacts on the environment. This article describes a landfill siting method, which is based on EVIAVE, a landfill diagnosis method developed at the University of Granada. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology is also used to generate spatial data for site assessment. Landfill site suitability is assessed on a scale based on territorial indices that measure the risk of contamination for the following five environmental components: surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil, and human health. The method described in this article has been used to evaluate an area in Granada (Spain) where there is a currently operating landfill. The results obtained show that suitable locations for the disposal of municipal waste were successfully identified. The low environmental index values reflect the suitability of this landfill site as well as its minimal negative impacts on the environment.

      2008
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M.Zamorano, E. Molero, Á. Hurtado, A. Grindlay, Á.Ramos
    • Revista: Journal of Hazardous Materials
    • Volumen - Páginas: (160) 473-481
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.023
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Implementation of a new environmental impact assessment for municipal waste landfills as tool for planning and decision-making process

    Among Latin American countries, Chile is the leader in terms of end-disposal of waste by landfill, with coverage of 83%. Accordingly, advances in waste management are currently being applied to minimize the environmental impact of existing sites. This has given rise to the need to undertake an environmental diagnosis of existing facilities in order to analyse the problems they present and take the necessary measures for reducing adverse effects. Taking into account the country's territorial division, the study began with an analysis of the seventeen points of deposit located in the Fifth Region of Valparaiso. Researchers used a methodology for measuring environmental impact of urban waste landfills developed by the University of Granada in collaboration with the Catholic University of Valparaiso. By applying this methodology a series of environmental indexes were obtained making it possible to quantify the impact of deposit points on the environmental elements surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health. These indexes were as follows: Environmental-Landfill Interaction index; Environmental Risk Index; Environmental Weighting Coefficient; Environmental Value and Probability of Contamination. Analysis of results showed an absence of statistically significant differences in the environmental impact of the landfills, classified as low in all cases. Environmental elements most affected were groundwater and soil. The study also made it possible to compile a catalogue of all the points of deposit and draw up priorities for action. With the exception of one landfill which should be sealed, these action priorities will be aimed at improving the exploitation and design of existing facilities.

      2007
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Fernando Calvo, Begoña Moreno, Ángel Ramos, Montserrat Zamorano
    • Revista: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    • Volumen - Páginas: (11) 98-115
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2004.12.003
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER

Planeamiento: Congresos

Residuos Urbanos: Proyecto

Residuos Urbanos: Artículo

  • Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied.

      2017
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: J.M. Fernández-González, A.L. Grindlay, F. Serrano, M.I. Rodríguez-Rojas, M. Zamorano.
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: 67 360-374
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.003
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Logística y optimización del servicio de recogida de residuos urbanos en áreas rurales.

    La Ley 7/1985, de 2 de abril, reguladora de las Bases de Régimen Local, establece que en todos los municipios de España, las administraciones locales deben prestar, entre otros, el servicio de recogida y transporte de residuos urbanos (RU). En España, con una población total de 45.000.000 habitantes, y un ratio de generación de RU de 1,4 Kg/hab/día, se generan diariamente 63.000 Tn de RU que son transportados hasta plantas de transferencia o plantas de tratamiento y eliminación. La mayor parte de estos municipios, el 83,8%, tienen menos de 5.000 habitantes y un volumen de generación de residuos diario muy por debajo de la capacidad de carga de los camiones recolectores, por lo que no se consigue un transporte eficiente de los mismos. La aplicación de nuevas tecnologías así como la mancomunación para la prestación del servicio de recogida de RU consigue un transporte mucho más eficaz desde el punto de vista económico y ambiental. Entre estas tecnologías se diferencian las que se aplican a los camiones recolectores: dispositivos de control de flotas, sistemas de pesaje en chasis o pesaje embarcado, compartimentación de camiones; y los que se aplican a los contenedores receptores de los RU: sensores de llenado y sensores de manipulación. La presente investigación pretende cuantificar los ahorros económicos y ambientales que pueden obtenerse en los servicios de recogida de RU mediante la aplicación de nuevas tecnologías y la mancomunación de los mismos. Con la finalidad de validar esos resultados, se comprueban los obtenidos tras la implantación de estas medidas en el Consorcio para el Desarrollo de la Vega Sierra Elvira, compuesto por un conjunto de municipios del cinturón metropolitano de Granada, para finalizar determinando los potenciales ahorros en un grupo de municipios de la Vega Baja de la Provincia de Alicante, de aplicarse similares actuaciones. Para el primer territorio estudiado, la implementación de la recogida conjunta para 14 municipios con una población de 66.000 habitantes, ha supuesto un ahorro medio de 13,15 €/Tn y una reducción de emisiones de GEI de 1,71 KgCO2eq/Tn de RU. En el segundo territorio puede suponer un ahorro medio de 5,17 €/Tn y la reducción de 2,09 KgCO2eq/Tn en GEI.

      2016
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Fernández-González, J. M., García-Pérez, J., Ruiz-Lozano, A. & Vilaplana, D.,
    • Revista: Libro Actas CIT2016
    • Volumen - Páginas: 673-701
    • Referencia: http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/CIT2016.2016.4257
    • Editorial: OCS EDITORIAL UPV
  • Energy valuation of Urban Waste. Vega de Granada case study

    The EC Directive regarding Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stipulates that member states should prioritize effective measures for the treatment of residues with a view to developing different forms of valorization, among these energetic. Consequently there is a need to implement management technologies which provide a variety of complementary solutions to recycling and with the aim of avoiding elimination through incineration and landfill. Different technologies are available for energetic valorization of residues including bio-methanization, pyrolysis, gasification, etc. Each method can be adapted to suit social, ambiental, territorial and economic variables. This study provides a cost analysis for 13 municipalities in the province of Granada, Spain, ranging in populations of 300 to 21,500, forming part of a total 93,300 inhabitants, producing 45,000 tons pa of MSW. Having analyzed bio-methanization, production of Solid Recoverable Fuels (SRF) and gasification, the conclusion is that the introduction of these methods would generate a levy, (council tax) payable by ratepayers/property holders, of 23.29€/t, in the case of gasification and 35.96€/t for SRF production technology. These costs compare favourably to the actual incineration and landfill methods used in this area (circa 42€/t) and would produce net financial and environmental benefits in management costs, reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels and reduction of MSW sent to landfill.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: J.M. Fernández-González, M. Zamorano, A.L. Grindlay, M.I. Rodríguez
    • Revista: Transactions on Ecology and the Environment
    • Volumen - Páginas: (199) 167-181
    • Referencia: DOI 10.2495/RAV150151
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • Alternativas de Valorización y Eliminación de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos

    La producción de residuos se encuentra en continuo aumento, y la actividad económica vinculada a ellos alcanza cada vez mayor importancia, tanto por su envergadura como por su repercusión directa en la sostenibilidad del modelo económico. Este artículo recoge el estado del arte actual de las técnicas de valorización y eliminación de residuos sólidos urbanos.

      2014
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Rodrigo Ilarri, J., Rodrigo Clavero, M., & Fernández González, J. M.
    • Revista: Industriambiente
    • Volumen - Páginas: (Dic 2014) 70-76
    • Editorial: Industriambiente
  • An index to quantify street cleanliness: The case of Granada (Spain)

    Urban surfaces receive waste deposits from natural and human sources, which create a negative visual impact and are identified as potentially significant contributors to water and air pollution. Local councils are usually responsible for the sweep of roads and footpaths to keep the environment clean and free of litter. Quality controls are useful in order to check whether the services are being executed according to the quantity, quality and performance standards that are provided. In this sense, several factors might affect the efficiency of the management of cleaning and waste collection services; however, only a few contributions are available in the literature on the various aspects associated with the level of street cleanliness. In this paper, the suitability of a Cleanliness Index has been checked, for the case of Granada (South of Spain), in order to contribute to the proper management of public expenditure, improving the quality and cost of an essential service for any municipality. Results have concluded that the city exhibits a good level of cleanliness, although the standard of cleaning varied from one area of the city to another. The Cleaning Index fits well to the general situation of the different districts of Granada and thus, it could be considered a useful tool for measuring the level of cleanliness of the streets of the city and for evaluating the organization of the cleaning service, such that an outsourced company would not be responsible for controlling all the cleaning services.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Sevilla, M.L. Rodríguez, A. García-Maraver, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: (33) 1037-1046
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.012
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Efficiency of a biological aerated filter for the treatment of leachate produced at a landfill receiving non-recyclable waste

    The feasibility of a biological aerated filter for the treatment of a partially stabilized leachate from a landfill receiving non-recyclable wastes was assessed in laboratory-scale experiments. Maximum COD, BOD5 and TSS removal efficiencies achievable by the biofilter as well as the optimal hydraulic and organic loading rates were determined by laboratory-scale tests in batch and continuous mode. Experiments in batch mode which lasted for 7 days showed that COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies were stabilized after the second day of operation and kept at around 56–60% and 83–97%, respectively, for the rest of the period studied. The remaining fraction (approximately 40% of the COD) was found to be composed of recalcitrant or not easily biodegradable compounds. The COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies decreased with increasing hydraulic loading rates. The plant worked under optimal conditions at hydraulic loading rates of 0.71 and 1.41 m3/m2d (hydraulic retention times of 15.95 and 7.97 h, respectively) and at COD loading rates below 14 kg COD/m3, where COD removal efficiencies were around 60%. TSS removal efficiencies were not significantly influenced by the hydraulic loading rate. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of a biological aerated filter for the removal of the biodegradable fraction of the organic matter contained in the leachate. However, a physicochemical process was found to be necessary as pre- or post-treatment for the removal of the recalcitrant fraction.

      2012
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Gálvez, A., Zamorano, M, Ramos-Ridao, A
    • Revista: Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A
    • Volumen - Páginas: (47) 54-59
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.629580
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Diagnosis and proposals for waste management in industrial areas in the service sector: case study in the metropolitan area of Granada (Spain)

    Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. However, this also means that the environmental problems of each company are concentrated in a relatively small area. One of these problems is solid waste disposal, which has become a critical issue because of its negative impacts as well as the resources consumed. Integrated solid waste management integrates cleaner and more sustainable production strategies by reducing resource consumption and applying mechanisms found in natural ecosystems to industrial systems. Nevertheless, one of the necessary conditions for the design of such a system is a preliminary study of waste generation management in the area. The study presented in this paper characterizes industrial waste production and management in the metropolitan area of Granada (Spain), and analyzes its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A similar typology of industrial activities, mainly in the distribution and transportation sector, as well as the proximity of various industrial parks could facilitate their partnership in environmental management. The results obtained in our study point to significant weaknesses in the system, such as the lack of effective waste management tools and training for waste management personnel. Other weaknesses were, the low percentage of selective waste collection and the existence of unauthorized collectors. The paper concludes with specific proposals for waste collection. These recommendations include the creation of the following: (i) a community responsible for waste management; (ii) recycling points in industrial parks; (iii) energy recovery from the waste; (iv) a market to sell, buy, and/or exchange waste; (v) one authorized set of waste management agents that would provide the advantages of an economy of scale.

      2011
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Zamorano, M., Grindlay, A., Molero, E., Rodríguez, M.I.
    • Revista: Journal of Cleaner Production
    • Volumen - Páginas: (19) 1946-1955
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.07.004
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Evaluation of the quality and treatability of leachate produced at a landfill connected to an urban waste composting and recovery plant at Alhendín (Granada, Spain)

    The leachate produced at a landfill adjoining an urban waste composting and recovery plant at Alhendín (Granada, Spain) was sampled for a period of more than 3 years from February 2003 until July 2006. The main pollutant parameters (COD, BOD5, solids, nitrogen, main anions and cations, pH, Eh and conductivity) were analysed with the aim of selecting the most effective treatment for the leachate. The results obtained showed high concentrations of different pollutants with COD and BOD5 values up to 74,133 mg/L and 39,000 mg/L respectively. Seasonal changes in leachate composition were mainly attributed to differences in rainfall, temperatures, and evaporation rates. Our study classified the Alhendín landfill leachate as a partially stabilized leachate because of: (i) its management strategies (storage at artificial ponds and recirculation); (ii) the coexistence in the landfill of active and closed cells with wastes of different ages and at different decomposition phases. The leachate quality data obtained was statistically evaluated using various statistical tools. A good correlation was found between many of the parameters analysed, some of which also showed good linear regressions. Principal component analysis allowed the reduction of most of the parameters analysed to four components: Component 1 (K+, Mg2 +, FTS, VDS, VTS, Na+ and Cl−), component 2 (BOD5), component 3 (TDS, TS, FDS and conductivity) and component 4 (pH, FSS, Eh and VSS). The results obtained are valuable for the selection of the best leachate treatment option. A combination of a physicochemical treatment and a fixed film biological system is recommended for this leachate.

      2010
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Gálvez, M. Zamorano, M.L. Rodríguez, A. Ramos
    • Revista: Journal Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A
    • Volumen - Páginas: (45) 612-621
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/10934521003595688
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Stability and efficiency of biofilms for landfill leachate treatment

    The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of a fixed-film biological aerated filtration process for the treatment of the leachate produced at Harnhill landfill site (South Gloucestershire, UK). The laboratory scale plant consisted of four identical biological aerated filters (a triplicate and a “control” column) packed with small brick fragments. Biofilm formed within 24 h of immersion of the support material in the reactor, and had a high resistance to antibiotics and other toxic agents. The plant maintained a stable operation in the 20–45 °C temperature range, showing the best results (35.4 ± 6.6% COD removal and 73.9 ± 5.5% BOD5 reduction) at 40 °C. The lowest COD and BOD5 values obtained at the outlet of the columns were 7067 mg/L and 1050 mg/L, respectively.

      2009
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Gálvez, L. Guisti, M. Zamorano, A. Ramos
    • Revista: Bioresource Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: (100) 4895-4898
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.05.014
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Characterization of the leachate produced in the closed cells of a landfill site at Alhendín (Granada, Spain)

    Landfill leachates are currently one of the main problems associated with the elimination of wastes at landfills and one of the most polluting effluents. They have a complex composition, which includes dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds. Leachate characterization is thus an essential factor to be considered in the design of an effective treatment system. Samples were taken of the leachate produced in the closed cells of a landfill site at Alhendín (Granada, Spain) for a period of more than one year. The analyses performed included COD, BOD5, solids, ammonia, the main cations and anions, pH, redox potential, and conductivity. The results obtained show high concentrations of different pollutants. Leachate strength followed a seasonal pattern, which can be mainly attributed to variation in rainfall and temperatures as well as evaporation rates. We found that most of the parameters analyzed showed a close correlation. The principal component analysis was applied to the data with a view to evaluating the interrelationships between parameters. It was thus possible to describe the data in terms of only four components.

      2008
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Gálvez, A.Ramos, M.L. Rodríguez, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Waste Management and the Environment IV
    • Volumen - Páginas: 163-172
    • Referencia: doi:10.2495/WM080181
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • A methodology for the optimal siting of municipal waste landfills aided by geographical information systems

    An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental, economic or ecological impacts. Landfill siting should therefore consider a wide range of territorial and legal factors to reduce such negative impacts as far as possible. This paper describes the application of an integrated system of landfill siting methodology. The methodology incorporates techniques from various scientific fields as well as GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to generate spatial data for the evaluation of the suitability of an area for optimal landfill siting. The resulting land suitability is reflected on a graded scale with several territorial indexes indicating the risk and probability of contamination for five environmental components: surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health. The methodology has been applied to a site in Granada (Southern Spain). Keywords: landfill siting, municipal waste landfill, Geographical Information Systems, territorial siting criteria, waste management. 1 Introduction Although authorities are attempting to reduce waste generation and disposal by implementing recycling programs and new facilities, the sanitary landfill remains a necessary part of the municipal waste management system [1, 2, 3].

      2006
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, A. Grindlay, e. Molero & A. Ramos
    • Revista: Waste Management and the environment III
    • Volumen - Páginas: (92) 347-358
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.2495/WM060371
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • Treatment of landfill leachate with aerated and non-aerated submerged biofilters

    A submerged biological filter packed with clayey schists from brick industrial waste as support material was used to treat landfill leachate. The pilot-scale plant consisted of two separated reactors, running in aerated and non-aerated conditions respectively. The leachate was taken from a landfill in Granada (southeast Spain) and was considered as partially stabilized with average chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 18683.3 mg COD/L. The efficiency of the system at reducing COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), total solids (TS), cations and anions concentrations was tested comparing aerating and non-aerating conditions under several volumic organic loadings (15.7, 25.1 and 31.1 kg COD/m3d), a hydraulic loading of 0.7 m3/m2d and an internal recirculation of 250%. Results obtained showed that the aerated reactor was more effective than the non-aerated reactor in the removal of COD, BOD5 and TS, with maximum efficiencies of 66.7%, 91.2% and 21.7%, respectively. The volumic organic loading of 25.1 COD/m3d obtained best results. However, for the removal of TSS and TVS the non-aerated reactor showed better results (42%). The behaviour of different cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) and anions (F−, Cl−, Br−) was also monitored and a reduction in their concentration in the effluent was detected, in the order of 61% for Ca2+ and 100% for F−.

      2006
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A.Gálvez, M. Zamorano, E. Hontoria, A. Ramos
    • Revista: Journal of Environmental Science and Health
    • Volumen - Páginas: (41) 1129-1144
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520600623034
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills

    A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required.

      2005
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Calvo F., Moreno B. Zamorano M., Szanto M.
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: (25) 768-779
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2005.02.019
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills as a tool for planning and decisión-making process

    In Europe, a Council Directive passed in 1999 provided for the regulation of waste disposal in landfills. This was a specific piece of legislation aimed at environmental control of new and currently operational installations. As a result it has become necessary to adapt currently operational release points to make them compatible with the new legislation. This new situation has obliged the different environmental organisations to carry out a stocktaking of release points in order to draw up a Conditioning Plan or a Closing Plan in accordance with the Directive. The present study describes a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out, involving the formulation of environmental indexes which give information about the potential environmental problems of currently operational landfills. The indexes provide information related to location, design and operation in order to help draw up action plans for the conditioning or closure of the landfill site and to prioritize the order of actions required. Keywords: municipal solid waste, landfill, environmental impact assessment, landfill sealing, landfill design, landfill recovering.

      2005
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, E. Garrido, B. Moreno, A. Paolini & A. Ramos
    • Revista: Sustainable development and planning II
    • Volumen - Páginas: (1) 545-554
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.2495/SPD050531
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions

    Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their closing, sealing, and rehabilitation.

      2005
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: E.Garrido; F. Calvo; A.F. Ramos; M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Environmental Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: (26) 1231-1242
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332608618601
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment of a partially stabilized leachate from a sanitary landfill site at Alhendín (Granada, Southern Spain)

    Leachate recirculation, biological, and physicochemical treatment processes are used to treat leachate landfill, but all treatment technologies seem to need a combination of two or more methods to obtain an effluent with suitable properties to eliminate environmental problems. In spite of the considerable literature focused on the coagulation–flocculation applied to landfill leachate before biological treatments, most investigations are developed to study different operating variables as leachate characteristics, type, and concentrations of chemical products applied. Two ferric coagulants (ferric chloride and Ferriclar), two aluminum coagulants (PAX-18 and SAL-8.2), an organic coagulant and flocculant (Chemifloc PA-15), several anionic flocculant (Chemifloc A05.L, A10.L, A20L, and A30.L), and a non-ionic flocculant (Chemifloc N01) were used in jar-test experiments to determine the best conditions for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids (TS) from a partially stabilized leachate collected at a sanitary landfill site at Alhendín (Granada, Southern Spain). The organic coagulant–flocculant PA-15 showed highest (17%) COD and TS removal efficiencies at a concentration of 2 mL/L. All combinations of coagulants and flocculants enhanced the COD removal efficiency. The best results (more than 25% COD removal) were obtained with a combination of ferric or aluminum-based salts in combination with high molecular weight flocculants.

      2005
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A.Gálvez, M. Zamorano, A. Ramos, E. Hontoria
    • Revista: Journal of Environmental Science and Health
    • Volumen - Páginas: (40) 1741-1751
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1081/ESE-200068032
    • Editorial: Taylor & Francis
  • Solid industrial wastes and their Management in Asegra (Granada-Spain)

    ASEGRA is an industrial area in Granada (Spain) with important waste management problems. In order to properly manage and control waste production in industry, one must know the quantity, type, and composition of industrial wastes, as well as the management practices of the companies involved. In our study, questionnaires were used to collect data regarding methods of waste management used in 170 of the 230 businesses in the area of study. The majority of these companies in ASEGRA are small or medium-size, and belong to the service sector, transport, and distribution. This was naturally a conditioning factor in both the type and management of the wastes generated. It was observed that paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, and metals were the most common types of waste, mainly generated from packaging (49% of the total volume), as well as material used in containers and for wrapping products. Serious problems were observed in the management of these wastes. In most cases they were disposed of by dumping, and very rarely did businesses resort to reuse, recycling or valorization. Smaller companies encountered greater difficulties when it came to effective waste management. The most frequent solution for the disposal of wastes in the area was dumping.

      2005
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Casares M.L., Ulierte N., Matarán A., Ramos A., Zamorano M.
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: (25) 1075-1082
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2005.02.023
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Submerged biological filters to treat landfill leachate. A laboratory experience

    Submerged biological filters to treat landfill leachate. A laboratory experience A. Mataran, M.A. Gomez, A. Ramos, M. Zamorano & E. Hontoria Civil Engineering Department. Granada University, Spain. Abstract Leachate treatment systems installed at landfill sites have advanced a great deal in sophistication and reliability. Leachate recirculation, biological and physicochemical treatment processes are used to treat this wastewater but all treatment technologies seem to need a combination of two or more methods to obtain an effluent with suitable properties to eliminate environmental problems. A system for leachate disposal must be simply and economic; it must require the least possible amount of energy to operate and minimum staff involvement. Biological biofilm filters could be a new solution to treat landfill leachate with standard characteristics. Aerobic and anaerobic systems could be used to treat landfill leachate with biological filters. Results obtained for two pilot plants show that this treatment could be an efficient alternative, with COD and suspended solids removal depending on hydraulic loading rate under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A new pilot plant, with aerobic and anaerobic reactors, is necessary to determine the design parameters of the system. 1 Introduction Wastes in landfill undergo physical, chemical and biological changes resulting in solubilisation or suspension of high concentrations of organic matter in a liquid phase called leachate (1). Landfill leachate is a complex wastewater and it always contains a high strength of pollutants which have an adverse effect on the environment (2). The composition of these leachates depends on waste composition and age, landfill surface, landfill operation and climatic conditions.

      2002
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Matarán A, M.A Gómez, Ramos A.; Zamorano M.; Hontoria E.
    • Revista: Waste Management and the Environment
    • Volumen - Páginas: (56) 689-697
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.2495/WM020711
    • Editorial: WITPRESS

Residuos Urbanos: Libro

  • Elaboración de un manual con resolución de problemas concretos asociados a la gestión municipal de residuos en el marco de la Cátedra de Gestión de Residuos UGR-Diputación Provincial de Granada

      Universidad de Granada
      Diputación Provincial de Granada
      Montserrat Zamorano Toro
      2015

  • Cuestiones prácticas de la gestión de residuos

      2015

    • Autor/es: MONTSERRAT ZAMORANO TORO, FRANCIsCO SERRANO BERNARDO, ÁNGELA GARCÍA MARAVER, JAIME MARTIN PASCUAL, LUIS F. DIAZ
    • Libro: Cuestiones prácticas de la gestión de residuos
    • Referencia: ISBN 978-84-16478-35-4
    • Editorial: Godel Editorial
  • Guía sobre competencias locales en materia de gestión de residuos

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano Toro, J.M. Fernández González, J. García Martínez, Á. García Maraver
    • Libro: Guía sobre competencias locales en materia de gestión de residuos
    • Referencia: GR 356-2015.
    • Editorial: Diputación Provincial de Granada
  • Alternativas de Valorización y Eliminación de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos

    En el preámbulo de la Ley 22/2011, de 28 de julio, de residuos y suelos contaminados se deja de manifiesto que la producción de residuos se encuentra en continuo aumento y que la actividad económica vinculada a los residuos alcanza cada vez mayor importancia, tanto por su envergadura como por su repercusión directa en la sostenibilidad del modelo económico europeo. En este contexto, el presente documento se ha elaborado por iniciativa de la Cátedra ACAL Ciudad Sostenible y la Universitat Politècnica de València y se enmarca en las actividades que esta Cátedra Universidad-Empresa realiza para desarrollar acciones formativas de sensibilización y divulgación a técnicos y responsables de la experiencia acumulada en las actuaciones realizadas y de formación permanente propiamente dicha a responsables de los distintos entornos funcionales con los que trata. El documento se ha elaborado de forma que recoja de forma resumida el estado actual de las técnicas de valorización y eliminación de residuos sólidos urbanos, sirviendo de esta forma de apoyo a los técnicos de las administraciones públicas y a los profesionales del sector de la gestión de RSU.

      2014
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Rodrigo Ilarri, J., Rodrigo Clavero, M., & Fernández González, J. M.
    • Libro: Alternativas de Valorización y Eliminación de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos
    • Referencia: ISBN: 978-84-942396-1-8
    • Editorial: ENTORNOS, DISEÑO Y PERCEPCIÓN
  • Aspectos prácticos de la gestión de residuos

      2011

    • Autor/es: ZAMORANO TORO, MONTSERRAT
    • Libro: Aspectos prácticos de la gestión de residuos
    • Referencia: ISBN 978-84-15418-03-0
    • Editorial: Godel Editorial
  • Waste Management and the Environment IV

    Waste generation is rapidly becoming one of the key problems of the modern world, due to the increasing waste generation rate as well as the complexity of waste composition. Damage to the environment caused by poor waste management can be avoided by implementing environmentally sensitive waste management techniques. Nevertheless, regardless of size, economic resources, or culture, every community must establish and maintain waste management systems that are appropriate and affordable. This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment , which provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information regarding the experiences and views on the current situation of waste management. This includes the description and discussion of technologies and strategies among professionals, researchers, government representatives, and local authorities. The papers are grouped under the following topics: Advanced Waste Treatment Technology; Energy from Waste; Landfills, Design, Construction and Monitoring; Resources Recovery; Waste Incineration and Gasification; Hazardous Waste; Computer Modelling; Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3 Rs); Construction and Demolition Waste; Waste Reduction and Recycling; Waste Management; Methodologies and Practices; Soil and Groundwater Clean-up; Wastewater Treatment; Air Pollution Control; Community Awareness; Risk Assessment.

      2008
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, C.A. Brebbia, A.G. Kungolos, V. Popov and H. Itoh
    • Libro: Waste Management and the Environment IV
    • Referencia: ISBN: 978-1-84564-113-9
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • Diagnóstico ambiental de vertederos de residuos urbanos. Teoría y práctica

    Estudios relativos a la descomposición de los residuos en vertederos, identifican estas zonas como lugares donde existen graves problemas de contaminación ambiental. En el año 2001 existían en España alrededor de ocho mil vertederos cuyas condiciones ambientales eran no controladas. La metodología de diagnóstico ambiental propuesta en este libro está basada en criterios ambientales establecidos por las normativas vigentes sobre vertido, y tiene como principal objetivo analizar vertederos y con ello facilitar la toma de decisiones para el control y acondicionamiento, o para el cierre, sellado y reinserción de los mismos. Previamente ala definición de la metodología se ha recogido un resumen de aspectos teóricos relativos a vertederos que ayudan a comprender algunos términos y conceptos utilizados después.

      2007

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano Toro, E. Garrido Vegara, Á. Ramos Ridao
    • Libro: Diagnóstico ambiental de vertederos de residuos urbanos. Teoría y práctica
    • Referencia: ISBN: 978-84-338-4554-2
    • Editorial: Universidad de Granada
  • Residuos generados en las empresas del Área Metropolitana de Granada: Identificación y Gestión

      2007

    • Autor/es: ZAMORANO TORO, MONTSERRAT
    • Libro: Residuos generados en las empresas del Área Metropolitana de Granada: Identificación y Gestión
    • Referencia: ISBN 978-84-7807-433-4
    • Editorial: Diputación Provincial de Granada
  • Metodología de diagnóstico ambiental para vertederos de residuos urbanos

      2004

    • Autor/es: F Calvo, M Zamorano, B Moreno, AF Ramos - Edita, Montserrat Zamorano Toro
    • Libro: Metodología de diagnóstico ambiental para vertederos de residuos urbanos
    • Referencia: ISBN: 84-609-0263-3
    • Editorial: Plácido Cuadros
  • Metodología de diagnóstico y caracterización ambiental de vertederos de residuos sólidos urbanos para su control, cierre, sellado y reinserción

    El vertedero de residuos sólidos urbanos es concebido en la presente investigación de forma dinámica. Es decir, como el lugar de interacción entre los procesos bioquímicos y físicos que se generan en la masa de residuos y las características ambientales y socio políticas del entorno. Partiendo de este concepto de vertedero, de la problemática actual del vertido de residuos sólidos urbanos y de los diferentes sistemas de evaluación sobre la afección de estas instalaciones al medio, se elabora mediante índices ambientales y cuantificables una metodología de diagnóstico y caracterización del estado ambiental de los vertederos. Esta evaluación tiene como objetivo principal realizar una priorización ambiental de actuación encaminada al control, cierre, sellado y reinserción de los vertederos al medio. Así mismo facilita la toma de decisiones para elaborar los planes de acondicionamiento de los vertederos bajo la actual directiva 31/99/CE sobre vertido cuya transposición al ordenamiento jurídico español es el R.D. 1841/2001. Estos índices ambientales facilitan la elaboración de los planes de cierre, sellado y reinserción de vertederos y con ello la recuperación de áreas impactadas por el vertido de residuos sólidos urbanos, facilitando la planificación territorial en el área de aplicación.

      2003
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Calvo Redruejo, F.
    • Referencia: Tesis Doctoral
    • Editorial: Universidad de Granada
  • Tratamiento de residuos urbanos: supuestos prácticos

      2002

    • Autor/es: ZAMORANO TORO, MONTSERRAT/RAMOS RIDAO, ÁNGEL/CALVO REDRUEJO, FERNANDO
    • Libro: Tratamiento de residuos urbanos: supuestos prácticos
    • Referencia: ISBN 978-84-931385-3-0
    • Editorial: Plácido Cuadros
  • Fundamentos del manejo de los residuos urbanos

    En el último siglo el continuo desarrollo industrial y el incremento de la población en las ciudades ha ocasionado que los vertederos incontrolados hayan sido el origen de importantes impactos medioambientales. Las actividades en las ciudades, así como las industrias, han sido puntos de emisión de residuos, algunos de ellos peligrosos, que además de potenciar los problemas en el medio ambiente, lo han deteriorado, tanto el que se ve como el que no.

      2000

    • Autor/es: Hontoria E, Zamorano M,
    • Libro: Fundamentos del manejo de los residuos urbanos
    • Referencia: ISBN: 9788438001721
    • Editorial: Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos

Residuos Urbanos: Congresos

Residuos Urbanos: Plan

Residuos Urbanos: Asistencia Técnica

Residuos Urbanos: Estudio

Tramitaciones Ambientales: Proyecto

Tramitaciones Ambientales: Artículo

  • Quantitative-qualitative assessments of environmental causal networks to support the DPSIR framework in the decision-making process

    The DPSIR framework helps to identify and situate stressors, drivers and pressure variables within a dynamic environmental process composed of cause-effect relations. However, an important aspect related to its structural deficiency implies the use of unidirectional causalities between variables. In this work, we extend the capacities of the DPSIR framework by addressing three important points. Firstly, causal networks are built instead of unidirectional causalities, the former based on paths represented by sequences of cause-effect relations between involved variables. These paths are derived from the population growth as a driving force variable, along with CO2 emissions, waste, water and loss of vegetation cover as pressure variables. Trends of these paths are combined to determine and quantitatively assess a global environmental state trend whose impacts on the environment require corrective management actions as a response. Secondly, quantitative assessments of environmental trends are transformed into fuzzy-qualitative data to facilitate their interpretation. Thirdly, a method based on weighted environmental management actions is presented to decision-makers who aspire to change current path trends in order to approach desirable scenarios similar to those put forth by the OECD outlook towards 2030. The results obtained applying this framework to the State of Morelos, México, show that it can be a useful support tool in the selection and monitoring of management actions capable of reaching favorable environmental trends.

      2018
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: F. Ramos, M. L. Ortíz, E. Sánchez, E. Úrsula, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review
    • Volumen - Páginas: (69) 42-60
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2017.11.004
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Adaptation of EVIAVE methodology for monitoring and follow-up when evaluating the environmental impact of landfills

    Treatment and final disposal of Municipal Solid Waste can have a significant role in the generation of negative environmental impacts. As a prevention strategy, such activities are subjected to the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Still, the follow-up of Environmental Management Plans or mitigation measures is limited, for one due to a lack of methodological approaches. In searching for possibilities, the University of Granada (Spain) developed a diagnostic methodology named EVIAVE, which allows one to quantify, by means of indexes, the environmental impact of landfills in view of their location and the conditions of exploitation. EVIAVE is applicable within the legal framework of the European Union and can be adapted to the environmental and legal conditions of other countries. This study entails its adaptation in Colombia, for the follow-up and control of the EIA process for landfills. Modifications involved inclusion of the environmental elements flora and fauna, and the evaluation of the environmental descriptors in agreement with the concept of vulnerability. The application of the modified EVIAVE in Colombian landfills allowed us to identify the elements affected by the operating conditions and maintenance. It may be concluded that this methodology is viable and effective for the follow-up and environmental control of EIA processes for landfills, and to analyze the associated risks, as it takes into account related environmental threats and vulnerabilities.

      2016
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: G. Arrieta, J. Toro, I. Requena, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review
    • Volumen - Páginas: (56) 168-179
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2015.10.001
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Environmental diagnosis methodology to analyze landfill-associated risks in Colombia.

    Colombia generates 27,000 tonnes/day of waste, which is deposited into landfills. Approximately 30% of these sites do not comply with the requirements to be considered for controlled landfills. According to the legal framework, these disposal systems of solid waste are compelled to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in order to minimize their associated problems. Even though there are tools designed to perform the EIA prior to the landfill construction, this is not the case for the follow-up and control stages of the operation phase. The University of Granada (Spain) developed a diagnosis methodology called EVIAVE, which allows for quantifying – through indexes – the environmental impact of landfills according to location and exploitation conditions, which allows for the implementation of environmental management plans. EVIAVE was designed for municipal landfills according to the European Union’s legal framework. However, it has been successfully applied in Chile, Venezuela and Iran with adaptations regarding their legal, socio-economic and ecosystem features. This work shows EVIAVE’s adaptation in Colombia, in order to diagnose active landfills. Modifications include flora and fauna, which allow for obtaining a wider description of the environment and updating the methodology according to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The assessment of environmental descriptors was also reformulated to cover the concept of vulnerability. This enables having more accuracy when assessing the predisposition of environmental elements to potential impacts generated by landfills’ operations. EVIAVE’s application in 16 Colombian landfills allowed for identifying the affected elements due to operation and maintenance conditions. This facilitates decision-making processes regarding the environmental management plans. It can be concluded that this methodology is a feasible and effective tool to diagnose the state of the environment in a landfill’s influence area, and to analyze landfill-associated risks in Colombia, because it takes into account environmental threats and vulnerabilities, as well as the follow-up and the control stages in EIA processes.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: G. Arrieta, I. Requena, J. Toro, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Transactions on Ecology and The Environment
    • Volumen - Páginas: (195) 353-364
    • Referencia: DOI 10.2495/ESUS150301
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • A Qualitative Method Proposal to Improve Environmental Impact Assessment

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Toro, J., Requena, I., Duarte, O., Zamorano, M.
    • Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review
    • Volumen - Páginas: (43) 9-20
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2013.04.004
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia: Critical Analysis and Proposals for Improvement

    The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

      2010
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: F.J. Toro, I. Requena, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review
    • Volumen - Páginas: (30) 247-261
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2009.09.001
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Environmental diagnosis of landfills in Venezuela using EVIAVE methodology

    The lack of modern and realistic waste management policies in Venezuela has led to uncontrolled waste dumping at landfills. Such landfills generate serious problems because of their location, design, and exploitation. Given this adverse state of affairs, it seems surprising that so little effort has been made to carry out an environmental diagnosis of landfill sites. The few existing studies have merely made inventories of waste disposal sites, and have limited themselves to pointing out the obvious, namely, the negative impact of such installations on the environment without determining cause-effect relations and without developing tools for defining strategic actions to solve this problem. The study presented in this paper uses EVIAVE, a method of environmental diagnosis developed by researchers at the University of Granada, to diagnose landfills in Venezuela. It was necessary to modify EVIAVE in order to adapt the method to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The data obtained, after applying methodology to 22 landfills in the country, include a series of environmental indexes (Environment Landfill Index, Environmental Risk Index, Environmental Value Index and Probability of Contamination Index) which allowed us to quantify the relation of landfill dynamics and its influence on various environmental elements. The results of the study confirm that EVIAVE can be successfully used as a planning tool for strategic actions that will reduce the environmental impact produced by indiscriminate waste disposal. Keywords: landfill, environmental impact, municipal waste, Venezuela, EVIAVE methodology.

      2008
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Paolini, A. Ramos, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment
    • Volumen - Páginas: (109) 173 - 182
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.2495/WM080191
    • Editorial: WITPRESS
  • Description of the methodology EVIAVE for environmental diagnosis of municipal waste landfills

    In Europe, a Council Directive passed in 1999 provided for the regulation of waste disposal in landfills. This was a specific piece of legislation aimed at environmental control of new and currently operational installations. As a result, it has become necessary to adapt currently operational release points to make them compatible with the new legislation. This new situation has obliged the different environmental organisations to carry out a stocktaking of release points in order to draw up a conditioning plan or a closing plan in accordance with the directive. The present study describes a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out, involving the formulation of environmental indexes that give information about the potential environmental problems of currently operational landfills. The indexes provide information related to the location, design and operation in order to help draw up action plans for the conditioning or closure of the landfill site and to prioritise the order of actions required.

      2006
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Zamorano, E. Garrido, B. Moreno, A. Paolini & A. Ramos
    • Revista: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning
    • Volumen - Páginas: (1) 303-316
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.2495/SDP-V1-N3
    • Editorial: WITPRESS

Tramitaciones Ambientales: Libro

  • TECNICAS ANALITICAS EN EL CONTROL DE LA INGENIERIA AMBIENTAL

    La presente obra compila los procedimientos analíticos más importantes para poder enfrentar a los procesos de interés técnico ambiental.

      2003

    • Autor/es: MIGUEL ÁNGEL GOMEZ NIETO; ERNESTO HONTORIA GARCÍA ; MONTSERRAT ZAMORANO TORO
    • Libro: Técnicas analíticas en el control de la ingeniería ambiental
    • Referencia: SBN: 9788433829887
    • Editorial: Universidad de Granada

Tramitaciones Ambientales: Congresos

Tramitaciones Ambientales: Asistencia Técnica

Eficiencia y Sostenibilidad: Proyecto

Eficiencia y Sostenibilidad: Artículo

  • Aplicación de tecnologías WtE en el tratamiento de los residuos municipales en España: Una herramienta imprescindible en la implementación de la Economía Circular.

    El ambicioso paquete de medidas sobre economía circular, adoptado por la Comisión Europea en 2015, fijó como objetivo común el reciclado del 65% de los residuos municipales y, como objetivo vinculante, la reducción de la eliminación en vertedero a un máximo del 10 % de todos los residuos para 2030. El cumplimiento de estos objetivos deja un 25% de residuos que, de acuerdo con la Directiva Marco de Residuos, deberán ser valorizados energéticamente, como una de las principales alternativas. España, con porcentajes de disposición en vertedero superiores al 55% y de valorización energética en torno al 10%, está lejos de los objetivos marcados. El Plan Estatal Marco de Gestión de Residuos (PEMAR) 2016-2022, fija como objetivo de valorización energética de los rechazos procedentes de instalaciones de tratamiento el 15% para 2020, por lo que será necesario incrementar un 10% la valorización energética de esa fracción en el periodo 2020-2030. Las opciones tradicionales de aprovechamiento energético de los rechazos pasan por su procesado en instalaciones de incineración o coincineración, aunque han proliferado tecnologías que emplean bajas cantidades de oxígeno como pirólisis, gasificación y proceso de plasma, todas ellas reguladas mediante la Directiva 2010/75/UE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo sobre las emisiones industriales. Este trabajo pretende calcular el potencial energético de los residuos municipales en España en el escenario de cumplimiento de los objetivos para 2030, así como analizar nuevas vías de desarrollo y comercialización de los recursos recuperados, como herramienta para la consecución de los objetivos de la economía circular.

      2017
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Fernández-González, J. M. Zamorano, M.
    • Libro: Libro de actas. VII Simposio Iberoamericano en Ingeniería de Residuos, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander,
    • Volumen - Páginas: 241-246
    • Referencia: ISBN: 978-84-697-3824-5
    • Editorial: Amaya Lobo García de Cortázar, Ana López Martínez, Ana Lorena Esteban García, Miguel Cuartas Hernández
  • Consumer knowledge, information sources used and predisposition towards the adoption of wood pellets in domestic heating systems

    Previous work on consumer psychology has focused on social attitudes towards environmental concerns through a behavioural perspective. In order to complete and verify the outcomes and statements of such research, this study used a perception-based approach involving a focus group and personal interviews to provide a more holistic understanding for adopting wood pellet-based heating systems or boilers. Concretely, the study probed the following issues: (i) the knowledge level of end consumers concerning biofuels in general and pellets in particular; (ii) main information sources; (iii) the level and intention of biofuel and pellet use among end consumers; (iv) the influence of subsidies or funding support for the purchase of pellet boilers/stoves; and (v) the influence of consumers’ environmental concerns on their biofuel and pellet consumption. These variables were crossed with a set of socio-demographic variables of the sample population. The statistical analysis verified that knowledge about biofuels was directly related to knowledge about pellets. Most respondents knew very little about pellets, largely due to a lack of information and communication. Friends were the principal information source, followed by family members. Finally, while environmental concern may bear some weight in the decision to adopt these heating systems, the existence of subsidies for their purchase was more important in consumers’ ultimate decision.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Maroto-Garcia I, Garcia-Maraver A, Muñoz-Leiva F, Zamorano M.
    • Revista: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    • Volumen - Páginas: (43) 207-215
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.004
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Factors affecting the quality of pellets made from residual biomass of olive trees

    In the Mediterranean areas of southwest Europe, olive tree pruning residues generate substantial amounts of residual biomass. Pelleting this biomass supposes the conversion of a residue difficult to manage into an energy resource especially indicated to be used in the areas where these groves exist. The final quality of pellets varies depending on the raw material properties and the manufacturing process. Consequently, in this paper the raw materials were chemically characterized before pelletization under different conditions in a semi-industrial pellet mill. In addition, the physical and mechanical parameters of the pellets produced were analyzed in order to determine the optimum pelletization conditions for each raw material by using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software and considering the European requirements for non-industrial pellets. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the main densification parameters (moisture content, compression and temperature) and raw material (leaves, pruning, and wood) on the quality properties of pellets from the different olive tree pruning residues. In general, low moisture content (9%), short compression lengths (20–24 mm) and temperatures higher than 40 °C were the best pelleting conditions for the residual biomass from olive trees, although these parameters varied between the raw materials analyzed.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: García-Maraver A., Rodríguez M.L., Serrano F., Díaz L.F., Zamorano M.
    • Revista: Fuel Processing Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: (129) 1-7
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.08.018
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Influence of densification parameters on quality properties of rice straw pellets

    Densified rice straw can be easily handled, which may reduce transportation and storage costs. The influence of densification parameters on the quality properties of rice straw pellets was the main focus of this study. The conditioning factors analyzed were: moisture content of the feeding material (12%, 15% and 17%), starch as an additive (0%, 1% and 2%), operating temperature (below and over 50 °C), and the influence of three flat dies with different diameter/compression length (6/20, 6/24 and 8/32 mm/mm) on the pellet properties (durability, hardness, moisture content, dimension, and single and bulk densities). The quality of the pellets was evaluated in view of current standards. The results showed that the studied feeding and operating conditions had significant effects on the pellet properties, especially durability and bulk density, which are the most important parameters for pellet quality. All dimensions, most bulk densities, and few durability values of the produced pellets achieved the standard limits. The highest pellet quality, with durability 99.31%, was obtained with operating conditions 2% starch ratio, 17% feeding moisture content, temperature < 50 °C and die size 8/32 mm/mm.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: N. Said, Mahmoud, A. García-Maraver, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Fuel Processing Technology
    • Volumen - Páginas: (138) 56-64
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.05.011
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Determination and comparison of combustion kinetics parameters of agricultural biomass from olive trees

    Thermogravimetric curves in air, measured for the different types of agricultural residues from olive trees (leaves, pruning and wood) at different heating rates (5, 10, 20, 40, 100 K/min), are subjected to kinetic evaluation by model-based and model-free methods. It is shown that the combustion process in the samples analyzed can be divided into three stages: water removal, roasting phase and char decomposition. At every stage, the activated energy varies with the mass conversion for the kinetic models considered. Its value was determined by the model-free methods, of which Flynn–Wall– Ozawa and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose were the most appropriate for this purpose and resulted in similar values of activated energy. Once the activation energy was determined, the order of the reactions and the frequency factors of each stage were calculated by means of the Coats–Redfern model-based method in order to complete the determination of the kinetic triplet. From the results obtained, it was deduced that the most feasible reaction order was one.

      2015
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Garcia-Maraver, J. A. Perez-Jimenez, F. Serrano, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Renewable Energy
    • Volumen - Páginas: (83) 897-904
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.05.049
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Effects of mineral contamination on the ash content of olive tree residual biomass

    The rise in energy consumption has made the use of alternative fuels a priority. Residual biomass is an abundant renewable energy resource whose use can lead to significant socioeconomic and environmental benefits. This biomass is destined to play an important role in the new energy model since agricultural residues are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. Consequently, converting this residue into an energy product increases the value of these waste materials and reduces the environmental impact of waste disposal. The generation of agricultural residues from the olive sector in the Mediterranean area is an important source of residual biomass highly suitable for thermal energy generation. This biomass comes from olive groves and olive oil production plants that generate by-products with high energy content. However, since the properties of biomass are dependent on a wide range of factors, the focus of our research was to analyse all of its forms (leaves, branches, bark and wood) separately in order to better understand their thermal behaviour and assure the quality of the final energy product. The determination of the ash content for each type of olive tree residual biomass indicated that olive leaves were responsible for the high ash content of this biomass. As a result, various cleaning methods were used to study the effect of the mineral contamination from leaves on the final ash content. The ashes were also analysed with a microscope to ascertain their composition.

      2014
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A.García-Maraver, L.C.Terron, A.Ramos-Ridao, M.Zamorano
    • Revista: Biosystems Engineering
    • Volumen - Páginas: (118) 167-173
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.12.009
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Relationship between fuel quality and gaseous and particulate matter emissions in a domestic pellet-fired boiler

    The general purpose of this work is to evaluate the relationship between the fuel quality and the gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions in a domestic boiler fired with five different types of pellets, namely, two commercial pellets from pine residues, commercial pellets from cork residues, and in-house made pellets from olive wood and olive pruning residues. Initially, to evaluate if the pellets fulfill the requirements established in the European standards, a detailed physical and chemical characterization of the five types of pellets was performed. Subsequently, to examine the impact on pollutant emissions of the fuel type, all pellets were burned in the domestic boiler, each for three boiler thermal loads, and their gaseous and PM emissions were measured. Finally, to better understand the impact of the fuel ash composition on PM emissions, a number of selected PM samples were morphologically and chemically characterized. All pellets fulfilled the physical and mechanical requirements for non-industrial pellets, except in the case of one of the commercial pine pellets, which showed bulk density and durability values lower than the limits established in the European standard. In addition, pellets made from olive pruning showed higher nitrogen and sulfur contents, and cork pellets showed significantly higher sulfur content than those allowed for their use in domestic appliances by the European standard. Gaseous and PM emissions are significantly affected by the fuel type. The high CO emissions of the olive based pellets were attributed to their high particle densities and high length to diameter ratios, while the high NOx emissions of the olive pruning pellets were attributed to its very high nitrogen content. Among the agro-pellets, the cork pellets originated PM emissions lower than those from the olive wood pellets and much lower than those from the olive pruning pellets. All PM emissions were dominated by particles with sizes below 2.5 μm, which are significantly affected by the fuel ash composition, namely by the amount of volatile inorganic elements K and Na

      2014
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A.Garcia-Maraver, M.Zamorano, U.Fernandes, M.Rabaçal, M.Costab
    • Revista: Fuel
    • Volumen - Páginas: (119) 141-152
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.11.037
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Effects of olive residue biomass fly ash as filler in self-compacting concrete Construction and Building Materials

    Fine materials, such as fly ash from coal combustion, have been used to reduce the amount of superplasticizer and to manufacture concrete with standard properties. Because of the pozzolanic contribution of conventional fly ash concrete, fly ash can also be used as a partial substitute for cement. However, no results have ever been published on the use of fly ash as filler. This paper presents the results on the use of fly ash from the combustion of agricultural olive residue pellets as filler in self-compacting concrete. This study analyzed the characteristics of biomass fly ash, which was then used to manufacture specimens and obtain the optimal fly-ash dosage for the concrete. The properties of the reference concrete made with conventional filler and the biomass fly ash concrete were compared, as well as their compressive strength after 3, 7, and 28 days. The laboratory tests showed that the biomass fly ash concrete had a compressive strength that was equal to or greater than that of the reference concrete. These results clearly indicate that biomass fly ash can be used to manufacture high-quality self-compacting concrete.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: J. Cuenca, J. Rodríguez, M. Martín-Morales, Z. Sánchez-Roldán, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Construction and Building Materials
    • Volumen - Páginas: (40) 702-709
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.09.101
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Size grading methods to characterize construction and demolition waste for its use in structural concrete

    Recycled aggregate produced at construction and demolition waste plants is frequently used as an ingredient in structural concrete. Nevertheless, the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of this aggregate must be supervised in order to ensure the quality of the final product. Of these properties, one of the most important is particle size which depends to a great extend on the process used to manufacture the aggregate and it directly affects the consistency, workability, uniformity, and mechanical strength of concrete as well as its density, compactness, permeability and resistance to wear. This paper analyzes recycled aggregate samples with various size grading methods to determine their potential use in concrete. On the one hand, results have showed that some differences between different methods existed; on the other hand the manufacturing process should be modified so that the particle size of the recycled aggregate complied with the guidelines in the EHE-08 Code.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Martín-Morales, Z. Sánchez-Roldán, M. Zamorano, I. Valverde-Palacios
    • Revista: Materiales de Construcción
    • Volumen - Páginas: (63) 235-249
    • Referencia: doi: 10.3989/mc.2013.mc.06511
    • Editorial: Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja-CSIC
  • Analysis of the relation between the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content and the thermal behavior of residual biomass from olive trees

    The heterogeneity of biomass makes it difficult if not impossible to make sweeping generalizations concerning thermochemical treatment systems and the optimal equipment to be used in them. Chemical differences in the structural components of the biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) have a direct impact on its chemical reactivity. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the organic components of the raw material from olive trees (leaves, pruning residues, and wood) in the combustion behavior of this biomass, as well as to find the component responsible for the higher ash content of olive leaves. Accordingly, the study used a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor the different states and complex transitions that occurred in the biomass as the temperature varied. The decomposition rates of the different samples were analyzed in order to establish a link between each combustion phase and the composition of the raw materials. Two methods were used to determine the hemicellulose and cellulose contents of biomass from olive trees. Significant differences among the results obtained by the different methods were observed, as well as important variations regarding the chemical composition and consequently the thermal behavior of the raw materials tested.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. Garcia-Maraver, D. Salvachúa, M.J. Martínez, L.F. Díaz, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Waste Management
    • Volumen - Páginas: (33) 2245-2249
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.07.010
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Recycled aggregate in road construction following the Spanish General Technical Specifications for Roads and Bridge Works (PG-3): a case Study

    En esta investigación se han caracterizado cuatro muestras de árido reciclado para su potencial uso en obras de carreteras en España siguiendo el Pliego de Prescripciones Técnicas Generales para Obras de Carreteras y Puentes (PG-3). Aunque algunas fracciones presentaron suficiente calidad para la construcción de terraplenes, rellenos localizados y rellenos todo en uno, resultaron inadecuadas para la construcción de drenes subterráneos, zahorras, suelos estabilizados y pavimentos de hormigón. Obtuvieron una evaluación negativa en cuanto a distribución granulométrica y contenido en sulfatos. No obstante, la calidad de este árido reciclado podría mejorar sustancialmente eliminando manualmente el yeso antes de la trituración en planta o seleccionando el material con un mayor cuidado al inicio del proceso. Finalmente, recomendamos que los empresarios de las plantas de residuos de construcción y demolición modifiquen el procedimiento de fabricación para obtener una distribución granulométrica adecuada, de acuerdo con los requisitos del PG-3 y el uso previsto del árido.

      2013
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Martín-Morales, G.M. Cuenca-Moyano, M. Zamorano, I. Valverde-Palacios
    • Revista: Informes de la Construcción
    • Volumen - Páginas: (65) 107-119
    • Referencia: Paper DOI 10.3989/ic.11.125
    • Editorial: Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja-CSIC
  • Analysis of olive grove residual biomass potential for electric and thermal energy generation in Andalusia (Spain)

    As fossil fuels are not only a limited resource, but also contribute to global warming, a transition towards a more sustainable energy supply is urgently needed. Therefore, today's environmental policies are largely devoted to fostering the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies. One important aspect of this transition is the increased use of biomass to generate renewable energy. Agricultural residues are produced in huge amounts worldwide, and most of this residue is composed of biomass that can be used for energy generation. Consequently, converting this residue into energy can increase the value of waste materials and reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal. This paper analyses the situation of biomass energy resources in Andalusia, an autonomous community in the south of Spain. More specifically, biomass is the renewable source which most contributes to Andalusian energy infrastructure. The residual biomass produced in the olive sector is the result of the large quantity of olive groves and olive oil manufacturers that generate byproducts with a potentially high energy content. The generation of agricultural and industrial residues from the olive sector produced in Andalusia is an important source of different types of residual biomass that are suitable for thermal and electric energy since they reduce the negative environmental effects of emissions from fossil fuels, such as the production of carbon dioxide.

      2012
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. García-Maraver, M. Zamorano, A. Ramos-Ridao, L.F. Díaz
    • Revista: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    • Volumen - Páginas: (16) 745-751
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.08.040
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Characterization of recycled aggregates construction and demolition waste for concrete production following the Spanish Structural Concrete Code EHE-08

    Construction and demolition waste can be used as recycled aggregate in construction. The more thoroughly the waste is treated, the higher the quality of the aggregate. However, high-quality aggregate is expensive, and thus, economically unviable in countries where natural aggregate is cheaply obtained. This paper examines the characteristics of recycled aggregate, resulting from of a non-exhaustive production process. This aggregate was found to contain impurities, such as crushed clay brick, crushed ceramic materials, and gypsum. The tests used to analyze this material were those recommended in the Spanish Structural Concrete Code (EHE-08). The results obtained were then compared with the guidelines in this code, which regulate the use of this material as a component in structural concrete. The result showed that none of the fractions fulfilled all the requirements in this especially in the case of the fulfillment of guidelines established to certain properties of the recycled aggregate, basically water absorption sulfate content, and chloride content. In contrast, particle shape, density, assessment of fines and resistance to fragmentation were in compliance with the EHE-08 recommendations.

      2011
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: M. Martín-Morales, M. Zamorano, A. Ruiz-Moyano, I. Valverde-Espinosa
    • Revista: Construction and Building Materials
    • Volumen - Páginas: (25) 742-748
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.012
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • A comparative study of quality properties of pelletized agricultural and forestry lopping residues Renewable Energy

    Biomass is an abundant renewable energy source; however, because of its characteristics it is not easily used in its original form. Pelletization technology represents mass and energy densification that provides easier biomass fuel handling and feeding. A privately owned pelletization industrial plant has been set up to produce pellets from agricultural and forestry lopping residues. The plant has produced so far pellets made of leaves of olive tree, a mixture of different parts of olive trees, almond trees, black poplar and holm oak trees. The characteristics of the resulting products have been analyzed in this research to foresee their behaviour in the combustion process. Parameters analyzed included particle and bulk density, moisture content, crushing resistance or hardness, number of particles of pellets per unit volume, size (including diameter, length and ratio of both values), percentage of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen, additives and ash content, and finally heating value. Relationships between various parameters and a comparison with guidelines established by some European norms have been also investigated in order to determine possible restrictions on the use of the pellets. Results have shown that the use of different types of raw materials from agricultural and forestry lopping residues results in different physical and chemical properties of the pellets defining their possible application. Relationships between several parameters of pellets and a comparison with some European norms guidelines were also investigated and different guidelines fulfilment were detected; however no pellets tested fulfilled all parameters from guidelines established in the norms considered.

      2011
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Zamorano, M, Popov, V, Rodríguez, M.L., García, A.,
    • Revista: Renewable Energy
    • Volumen - Páginas: (36) 3133-3140
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.03.020
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • A review of European standards for pellet quality

    The quality of pellets is directly related to their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. It affects the emissions resulting from their combustion and also their use in stoves and boilers. Certain European countries have developed standards specifying control parameters and guidelines with a view to guaranteeing the effective and environmentally-friendly combustion of pellets. This paper presents a comparative study of regulations and standards created by government authorities in Austria, Sweden, Germany, Italy, and France. Also considered are the guidelines of the European Standard Committee CEN/TC 335 for densified biomass fuels. The comparison of these standards provides evidence of significant differences in the quality parameters and guidelines for the manufacture and use of pellets in Europe. The results obtained could be used as a technical reference for all issues related to the production, sale and research on pellets.

      2011
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: A. García-Maraver, V. Popov, M. Zamorano
    • Revista: Renewable Energy
    • Volumen - Páginas: (36) 3537-3540
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.05.013
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER
  • Study of the Energy Potencial of the Biogas Produced by an Urban Waste Landfill in Southern Spain

    Sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban waste although such landfills inevitably generate waste management problems. Landfills are an important source of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. In this sense the European Union has passed regulations regarding the effective management of biogas within the framework of an EU policy for renewable energies. The sealed landfill analyzed in this study is an example of energy recovery, but in this case the biogas generated by the landfill is being re-used to produce electrical energy. This article presents the results of the economic viability study, which was carried out previous to the construction of the installation. The results based on the use of empirical and theoretical models show the biogas to have a 45% proportion of methane and an overall flowrate ranging from 250 to 550 N m3/h. It is presently being used to produce electricity amounting to approximately 4,500, 000 kW h/year. The economic viability of the installation was estimated by means of the Internal Recovery Rate (IRR) for an exploitation period of 7 years.

      2007
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: Montserrat Zamorano, Jorge Ignacio Pérez, Ignacio Aguilar, Ángel Ramos
    • Revista: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    • Volumen - Páginas: (11) 909-922
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.05.007
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER

Eficiencia y Sostenibilidad: Congresos

Eficiencia y Sostenibilidad: Estudio

  • Estudio de investigación para la inyección de biometano en la red de gas natural.

    Estudio de viabilidad para la producción de biometano a partir de la fracción orgánica de los residuos municipales para su inyección en redes de gas natural.

      PROMA
      NEDGIA (Naturgy)
      Montserrat Zamorano Toro
      2019

    • Autor/es: Montserrat Zamorano; Jaime Pascual; Nicolò Ceccomarini; Carmen Díaz López; Javier Ordoñez; José María Fernández

Otros: Proyecto

Otros: Artículo

  • Critical review of medical waste legislation in Spain

    Medical waste is potentially dangerous since it may contain pathogenic agents. As a result, medical waste management requires that institutions take decisions, and implement a wide range of measures in order to reduce health risks. In this respect, many European countries have enacted legislation and good practice guidelines to define, classify, and treat medical waste. In reference to Spain, even though no specific national law has as yet been passed to regulate medical waste management, 13 of its regional governments have adopted regulations concerning medical waste management to guarantee health and environment protection. This paper presents the results of a study of the regional legislation in Spain. In our research, certain differences were detected regarding the criteria used for sorting, collection, storage, transport, treatment, and disposal practices. It was found that these differences in waste management criteria could have health implications as well as environmental and economic consequences, both inside and outside healthcare installations. The paper also proposes a set of general criteria upon which medical waste management should be based. Effective medical waste management should include the following: (i) a clear definition of medical waste and of the scope of legislation concerning it; (ii) basic principles to promote the reduction of the amount of waste generated at a source; (iii) a homogeneous classification of this waste; (iv) the implementation of environment-friendly waste treatment technologies.

      2010
      Enlace

    • Autor/es: E. Insa, M. Zamorano, R. López
    • Revista: Resources, Conservation and Recycling
    • Volumen - Páginas: (54) 1048-1059
    • Referencia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.06.005
    • Editorial: ELSEVIER

Investigaciones: Proyecto

Suelos Contaminados: Proyecto

Suelos Contaminados: Asistencia Técnica